Research Question 3: Key Trends

What key trends do you expect to accelerate technology integration in US schools over the next five years that will require high-performance Internet?

INSTRUCTIONS: Enter your responses to the questions below. This is most easily done by moving your cursor to the end of the last item and pressing RETURN to create a new bullet point. Please include URLs whenever you can (full URLs will automatically be turned into hyperlinks; please type them out rather than using the linking tools in the toolbar).

NOTE: The Key Trends are sorted into three categories: long-term impact, mid-term impact, and short-term impact.

Long-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that will continue to have impact on our decisions for a very long time. Many of them have been important for years, and continue to be so. These are the trends -- like mobile or social media -- that continue to develop in capability year over year.

Mid-Term Impact Trends
These trends will be important in decision-making for a longer term, and will likely continue to be a factor in decision-making for the next three to five years.

Short-Term Impact Trends
These are trends that are driving edtech adoption now, but will likely remain important for only next one to two years. Virtual Worlds was an example of a fast trend that swept up attention in 2007-8.

As you review what others have written, please add your thoughts and comments as well.

Please "sign" your contributions by marking with the code of 4 tildes (~) in a row so that we can follow up with you if we need additional information or leads to examples- this produces a signature when the page is updated, like this: - Sam Sam Apr 1, 2015


Compose your entries like this:

Trend Name
Add your ideas here with a few complete sentences of description including full URLs for references (e.g. http://horizon.nmc.org). And do not forget to sign your contribution with 4 ~ (tilde) characters!




Advancing Cultures of Change and Innovation
Many thought leaders have long believed that schools can play a major role in the growth of national economies. In order to breed innovation and adapt to economic needs, schools must be structured in ways that allow for flexibility, and spur creativity and entrepreneurial thinking. There is a growing consensus among many thought leaders that school leadership and curricula could benefit from agile startup models. Educators are working to develop new approaches and programs based on these models that stimulate top-down change and can be implemented across a broad range of institutional settings. In the business realm, the Lean Startup movement uses technology as a catalyst for promoting a culture of innovation in a more widespread, cost-effective manner, and provides compelling models for school leaders to consider. Education is expected to spend at least $21 Billion on IT in 2015. http://www.centerdigitaled.com/paper/- mabbiatti mabbiatti May 20, 2015Mike Abbiatti Educators must adopt a venture capital approach that looks at the life cycle of a new model that goes beyond the current view that the project goes away as soon as the volatile funding source goes away. Educators are far too familiar with the fact that if you wait long enough the latest craze will evaporate. In ed tech we have the luxury of knowing that the technologies will change almost daily. We must plan for obsolescence up front and be more focused on a Capabilites Index( what we wan to do in the long-term tied to quantifiable student learning outcomes) versus a slick Strategic Technology Plan that, in many cases, is neither strategic nor a plan. http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=52 [user:mabbiatti|1432136430]- mabbiatti mabbiatti May 29, 2015Mike Abbiatti The last K-12 Horizon report defined physical space as an important "tool" in advancing cultures of change. Since then, schools are "jumping on the bandwagon" and building innovative classrooms that promote collaboration and facility of teaching and learning. http://wallenberg.stanford.edu/conferences/gmu0609/files/21CLS.pdf- lisa.gustinelli lisa.gustinelli Jun 2, 2015

Growing Focus on Measuring Learning
There is an increasing interest in using new sources of data for personalizing the learning experience, for ongoing formative assessment of learning, and for performance measurement; this interest is spurring the development of a relatively new field — data-driven learning and assessment. A key element of this trend is learning analytics, the application of web analytics, a science used by businesses to analyze commercial activities that leverages big data to identify spending trends and predict consumer behavior. Education is embarking on a similar pursuit into data science with the aim of learner profiling, a process of gathering and analyzing large amounts of detail about individual student interactions in online learning activities. The goal is to build better pedagogies, empower students to take an active part in their learning, target at-risk student populations, and assess factors affecting completion and student success. For learners, educators, and researchers, learning analytics is already starting to provide crucial insights into student progress and interaction with online texts, courseware, and learning environments used to deliver instruction. Data-driven learning and assessment will build on those early efforts.

Increasing Cross-Institution Collaboration
Collective action among schools and districts is growing in importance for the future of higher education. More and more, institutions are joining consortia — associations of two or more organizations — to combine resources or to align themselves strategically with innovation in K-12 education. Today’s global environment is allowing universities to unite across international borders and work toward common goals concerning technology, research, or shared values. Support behind technology-enabled learning in classrooms has reinforced the trend toward open communities and university consortia, as educators and administrators recognize collective action as a sustainable method of supporting upgrades in technological infrastructure and IT services. Although a valiant exercise in altruism, the technical, financial, legal, and political realities of collaboration at the granular layer of student data prevent real progress. The K-12 community has been in the Longitudinal Data System business for many years based upon some initial and ongoing federal funding. Higher Education has been less financially fortunate, and therefore, has lagged behind in this important arena. However, there are some commonalities of challenges that the K-20 ecosystem shares. First, data standards are not yet finalized. There is a continuous process in place to agree on data definitions and related critical semantics. Second, the technical interoperability still proves to be an elusive outcome between institutions, states, and beyond. Third, the ongoing debate about privacy and security prevents the highest level decision-makers (such as legislators) from grasping and authorizing a path forward. More than one learned decision-maker has told me that "all data is local". Fourth, the as a nation we haven't found the collective courage to invest the funding required to make a truly shared data resource a reality. http://dataqualitycampaign.org/your-states-progress/by-state/overview/; http://www.wiche.edu/longitudinaldataexchange; http://www.sreb.org/page/1126/srebstate_data_exchange.html; [[user:mabbiatti|1432137680]- mabbiatti mabbiatti May 29, 2015Mike Abbiatti Some progress being made on data standards - EdFi. Some state initiatives like AzEDS are starting to take hold on providing data for the potential to cross-collaborate. Data belongs to student/parent is more of the thinking. Schools can temporarily use to help the student progress and the schools to improve their craft, service, product and processes. (- jbillings jbillings May 21, 2015) Shift to Global Connectedness Because we can. Because our kids deserve us to think beyond the walls of school to bring experts, authors, other teachers and students in. Because they can work together to solve real-world problems. Never before have we had truly effective tools for synchronous conferencing and media-rich asynchronous group discussion. Never before have we been able to leverage our emerging online communities of practice. Never before has participation been so possible. Never before has our world been so flat. Never before has it be more obvious that the prefix geo might amplify themes in any curriculum. Microsoft's Skype Translator may be a game-changer/barrier breaker for connectedness. Heidi Hayes Jacobs defines global literacy as the ability to be a fluent investigator of the world, to be able to examine different perspectives, to be able to report on and share ideas, and to take action on those ideas. Being globally literate requires learners to be able to collect meaningful information about people and places and personalize what they are learning. She notes: every classroom that has the capability, creates a partnership with another school for curricular purposes. Not just for a superficial Skype visit where we merely turn on a camera, but to connect around a contemporary issue or common problem. If we want Johnny, Susie, Abdul, Maria, any of our kids to be contemporary citizens, they need to be cultivating the three literacies . . . showing the intersection of those three in their projects and work–using digital tools, creating media to share, and being globally connected. . .That means they need teachers who are that way. They need principals who are that way . . . If we don’t do this, we’re basically choosing to live in the last century, rather than this one. Librarians are often leading in organizing these experiences at their schools. - joycevalenza joycevalenza Jun 21, 2015 Heidi Hayes Jacobs’ Contemporary Perspectives on Literacy series / Global Literacy

Increasing Focus on Content Curation
Social media curation: the selection and assembly of a focused group of resources into a Web-based presentation that meets an identified purpose or need and has meaning and context for a targeted audience. Related to the proliferation of OER is the need to curate and to model social media curation strategies so that learners might better able manage workflow and their information/communication lives. Human filters make a difference. Digital curators prevent oversaturation by filtering and diverting the onslaught and by directing what is worth sharing into more gentle and continuous streams. We have tools we have never had before to organize attractive digital collections and learning playlists, to create palettes or dashboards of the best apps for learners for particular tasks or projects. We can now easily present content from multiple perspectives, adding value to the individual items by presenting them in new contexts. Blogger, author, and NYU professor Clay Shirky, in Steve Rosebaum’s Mashable post, "Why Content Curation Is Here to Stay" on May 10, 2010, describes the problem with traditional search and identifies the issue of filter failure: Curation comes up when search stops working. [But it’s more than a human-powered filter.] Curation comes up when people realize that it isn’t just about information seeking, it’s also about synchronizing a community. [Part of the reason that human curation is so critical is simply the vast number of people who are now making and sharing media.] Everyone is a media outlet. The point of everyone being a media outlet is really not at all complicated. It just means that we can all put things out in the public view now (Shirky in http://mashable.com/2010/05/03/content-curation-creation/). Social media curation is an information life skill as well as a hot topic for the marketing and business worlds. Curation of current digital resources (e.g., podcasts, slidecasts, infographics, blogs, presentations, twitter feeds, ebooks, etc.) can facilitate the discovery of valuable Web content. School librarians often take the lead in gathering the best apps, tools, and documents for a particular project, class or lesson on the school's tablets. Curation skills allow learners to create personal learning environments (PLEs) for organizing content to meet both their academic and personal information needs, gathering tools for productivity and creativity, sharing their knowledge with others, and creating portfolios of their own work. PLEs are essential tools for networked learners.
Much of what students now need is dynamic and feedy and cloud-based. A notebook can no longer hold this stuff. Curation tools present an exciting new genre of search tool. Searchers can now exploit the curated efforts of experts and others who take the lead in a particular subject area—those who volunteer to scan the real-time environment as scouts. They also present the opportunity to guide learners in new evaluation strategies. Who is the curator? Which curators can you trust? Is a curator attached to a team, publication, institution, organization? How can the quality of their insights, selections, sources, and feeds be judged? Do their efforts have many followers? Is their curation active and current - joycevalenza joycevalenza Jun 21, 2015
Content Curation World (Robin Good)
Students Build Knowledge Together: Langwitches Blog (Silvia Tolisano)
Curation – Creatively Filtering Content (Sue Waters)
Valenza, Joyce Curation, School Library Monthly, Sept/Oct 2012
Social Media Curation | ALA TechSource (Valenza, Boyer, Curtis)


Increasing Use of Hybrid/Blended Learning Designs
Over the past several years, perceptions of online learning have been shifting in its favor as more learners and educators see it as a viable alternative to some forms of face-to-face learning. Drawing from best practices in online and face-to-face methods, blended learning is on the rise at schools. The affordances of blended learning offers are now well understood, and its flexibility, ease of access, and the integration of sophisticated multimedia and technologies are high among the list of appeals. Recent developments of business models for universities are upping the ante of innovation in these digital environments, which are now widely considered to be ripe for new ideas, services, and products. While growing steadily, the recent focus in many education circles on the rapid rise and burnout of massive open online courses (MOOCs) has led to the view that these sorts of offerings may be fad-like. However, progress in learning analytics; adaptive learning; and a combination of cutting-edge asynchronous and synchronous tools will continue to advance the state of online learning and keep it compelling, though many of these methods are still the subjects of experiments and research by online learning providers and schools. The bottom line is the bottom line in Education. Researchers will continue to develop creative learning ecosystems across the K-20 spectrum, but, in the end, the students will decide what actually works. Today we are experiencing a technology-enhanced Renaissance of learning opportunities;the theoretical outcomes are amazing. However, when we dig down to the base of the efforts, we see the economic reality. For instance, Adaptive Learning is a model that has been around for most of the history of teaching and learning. All we have done is move from face-to-face interaction through a series of steps that use technology to make content delivery cost effective for masses of learners via the transition from analog paper to digital presentation. Through combining the fantastic advances in processor power and machine to machine communication we are enabling predictive analytics and truly personalized education. The fly in the ointment is the price versus cost dilemma. New teaching and learning models, and the staff to administer them, are expensive, can have scalability issues, and require a re-tooling of the staff at all levels. So we have evolving models of technology-enhanced education that have not had time to prove their "cost-effectiveness". Learners value credentials, cost , and convenience. Hybrid models are the current solution for a large population. Higher Ed institutions have created categories to define these digital content delivery modes. We have fully online courses/programs( to include MOOCS), web-enhanced courses/programs, hybrid courses/programs, and what we call "traditional" courses/programs which are actually technology-enhanced offerings that do not rely upon the Internet as a primary delivery system. K-20 educators are struggling with the financial realities of the new models. Even if the model works, can we afford to deploy it to the extent required to justify the development and the significant investment to sustain the model beyond the initial launch. In summary, technology-enhanced hybrid teaching and learning models are certainly the wave of the future, but can we afford them? if we don't tackle the finance up front then we will make promises to learners that we can't keep. I said all of that to day this: We can partially resolve the issues by launching a DIGITAL CONTENT DELIVERY ENDOWMENT FUND(DCDEF) that would combine ( to some extent) the funds secured by the Dept. of Education, NSF,NIH, and PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS to focus specifically on the evolution of teaching and learning models K-20 with an upfront goal of financial sustainability. This could even be a Venture Capital model with a clearly defined Return On Investment(ROI) requirement. Funds could be awarded as they are now, require K-20 outcomes, and have a three year duration. the major difference between the DCDEF and today's model is the ROI requirement. This is certainly controversial,but potentially useful. - mabbiatti mabbiatti May 29, 2015Mike Abbiatti
See comment in RQ2 about Personalized Learning - - apowell apowell Jun 8, 2015
This trend makes a big difference to libraries who are having to conduct major redesigns of their learning spaces. http://www.theguardian.com/teacher-network/2015/jan/08/school-libraries-books-students-technology - crompton crompton Jun 14, 2015


Proliferation of Open Educational Resources
Defined by the Hewlett Foundation in 2002, open educational resources (OER) are “teaching, learning, and research resources that reside in the public domain or have been released under an intellectual property license that permits their free use and re-purposing by others.” Momentum behind OER began early on, getting a major boost when the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded the MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW) initiative in 2001, making MIT instruction materials for over 2,200 of its courses available online, free of charge. Soon after, prestigious universities including Carnegie Mellon University and Harvard University, among others, pushed forward their own open learning initiatives. Understanding that the term “open” is a multifaceted concept is essential to following this trend in higher education; often mistaken to simply mean “free of charge,” advocates of openness have worked towards a common vision that defines it more broadly — not just free in economic terms, but also in terms of ownership and usage rights. This trend is happening in K-12 as well. iNACOL and CCSSO have released a few papers on this topic over the past few years. In surveying our members, all of them are using a combination of vendor created, teacher created and OER digital content resources in their online and blended schools.- apowell apowell Jun 8, 2015

Redesigning Learning Spaces
Some thought leaders believe that new forms of teaching and learning require new spaces for teaching and learning. More universities are helping to facilitate these emerging models of education, such as the flipped classroom, by rearranging learning environments to accommodate more active learning. Educational settings are increasingly designed to facilitate project-based interactions with attention to mobility, flexibility, and multiple device usage. Wireless bandwidth is being upgraded in institutions to create “smart rooms” that support web conferencing and other methods of remote, collaborative communication. Large displays and screens are being installed to enable collaboration on digital projects and informal presentations. As higher education continues to move away from traditional lecture-based programming and to more hands-on scenarios, university classrooms will start to resemble real-world work and social environments that facilitate organic interactions and cross-disciplinary problem solving. I am thinking of a comment made under the Question 1 section, that is, what about K-16 combining?- jmorrison jmorrison May 26, 2015 See New Line Learning Schools in the UK (YouTube) - they are doing some amazing stuff with redesigning schools - apowell apowell Jun 8, 2015- jmorrison jmorrison Jun 10, 2015~
Flipped Learning Toolkit http://www.edutopia.org/video/flipped-learning-toolkit - krantanen00 krantanen00 Jun 14, 2015
Relating to redesigning learning spaces is the learning commons movement.
21st-Century Libraries: The Learning Commons, Beth Holland, Edutopia

Rethinking How Schools Work
There is a focused movement to reinvent the traditional classroom paradigm and rearrange the entire school experience — a trend that is largely being driven by the influence of innovative learning approaches. Methods such as project- and challenge-based learning call for school structures that enable students to move from one learning activity to another more organically, removing the limitations of the traditional bell schedule. Moreover, these novel arrangements encourage renovation of classroom layouts to with the express focus of facilitating more group interaction. Century old practices in which students learn subject by subject while uniformly facing the front of the classroom are perceived by many as an antiquated approach to teaching and learning. The multidisciplinary nature of project-based learning and other contemporary approaches has brought attention to innovative designs of the school atmosphere that link each class and subject matter to each other.. As learning becomes more fluid and student-centered, some teachers and administrators believe that schedules should be more flexible to allow opportunities for more authentic learning to take place and ample room for independent study.
http://www.educationworld.com/a_issues/issues/issues417.shtml - jmorrison jmorrison May 26, 2015

Rise of Alternative Forms of Credentialing
"Learners value credentials, cost , and convenience." This is where the theory of disruption may have a legitimate place. Note that the values of most users of the system is efficient credentialing, not learning. But there are models of schooling where students come to value and enjoy learning for its own sake, while appreciating the credentialing and the opportunities it offers as a critical and important side effect of learning. Systems that can provide both authentic, appealing learning environments plus credentialing would be an example of what the Christensen Institute labels a "hybrid" solution that meets the requirements of the current high-end users while offering completely new elements that are essentially competing against non-consumption. Moving from efficient, but uninspiring on-line content delivery to multi-learner on-line learning environments that involve creation as well as consumption and may involve immersive environments, can disrupt traditional on-line and hybrid learning by offering environments that are more satisfying and lead to deeper learning and broader preparation for the realities of the new work. But it requires a much higher level of infrastructure. - marieb marieb Jun 14, 2015 On "boarding" of MS/HS students using post-secondary and corporate MOOC's will become more common. Boarding is credit at the institution. You can see an example of this just released by Arizona State University, called Global Freshman Academy under the edX portal.(- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015) On "ramping" of MS/HS students using post-secondary MOOC's will become more common. On ramping is preparing the student through College Board AP level quality courses. You can see an example of these under the edX portal, specifically filtered for "AP".(- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015)

Rise of New Forms of Interdisciplinary Studies
According to the Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, multidisciplinary research refers to concurrent exploration and activities in seemingly disparate fields. Digital humanities and computational social science research approaches are opening up pioneering areas of multidisciplinary research at libraries and innovative forms of scholarship and publication. Researchers, along with academic technologists and developers, are breaking new ground with data structures, visualization, geospatial applications, and innovative uses of open-source tools. At the same time, they are pioneering new forms of scholarly publication that combine traditional static print style scholarship with dynamic and interactive tools, which enables real-time manipulation of research data. Applying quantitative methods to traditionally qualitative disciplines has led to new research categories such as Distant Reading and Macroanalysis — the study of large corpuses of texts as opposed to close reading of a few texts. These emerging areas could lead to exciting new developments in education, but effective organizational structures will need to be in place to support this collaboration.

Shift from Students as Consumers to Creators
A shift is taking place in the focus of pedagogical practice in schools all over the world as students in across a wide variety of disciplines are learning by making and creating rather than from the simple consumption of content. Creativity, as illustrated by the growth of user-generated videos, maker communities, and crowdfunded projects in the past couple years, is increasingly the means for active, hands-on learning. The Makerspace movement support this trend.
http://ww2.kqed.org/mindshift/2014/09/04/how-to-turn-your-school-into-a-maker-haven/ - jmorrison jmorrison May 26, 2015
Where will all these student and teacher created digital artifacts/learning resources live in the near, mid, and long term? How will they be curated and preserved over time? Can the r&e networking community at the state/regional or maybe even national level add value to the digital life cycle of this K-12 created content? - jwerle jwerle May 27, 2015
This shift will inevitably inspire more girls to enter the STEM fields as history has show that women have been the creators over time. Wearable technology is very appealing. https://youtu.be/meqbyg_TxT0 - lisa.gustinelli lisa.gustinelli Jun 2, 2015 I don't know if it is as much as a shift from consumers to creators. It's not that youth are doing more of one than the other (more creating than consuming). Youth are still consuming online content, but they are also creating significant amounts of content. Pew Research Center recently released a report that may be helpful. There's definitely a trend in digital communication among teens. Anyway, maybe I'm being annoying here! - abigail.leighphillips abigail.leighphillips Jun 10, 2015 Enterprise quality, audio/video collaborations. Must be high definition video and high quality audio, telepresence type levels. Expertise from outside the classroom will be integrated into the classroom for sessions from tutoring to lectures to student projects. These sessions will cross geopolitical borders, and will get more ubiquitous as the need to learn how to collaborate and work with global citizens becomes more necessary. (- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015)

Shift to Deeper Learning Approaches
There is a new emphasis in the classroom on deeper learning approaches, defined by the Alliance for Excellent Education as the delivery of rich core content to students in innovative ways that allow them to learn and then apply what they have learned. Project-based Learning, Problem-Based Learning, Inquiry-Based Learning, Challenge-Based Learning and similar methods foster more active learning experiences, both inside and outside the classroom. As technologies such as tablets and smartphones are more readily accepted in schools, educators are leveraging these tools, which students already use, to connect the curriculum with real life applications. These active learning approaches are decidedly more student-centered, allowing learners to take control of how they engage with a subject and to brainstorm and implement solutions to pressing local and global problems. The hope is that if learners can connect the course material with their own lives and their surrounding communities, then they will become more excited to learn and immerse themselves in the subject matter.
Active learning is not new, it is good teaching. Like many challenges and trends going to scale is the obstacle. Change in education is like trying to move Mt. Everest. However with more technology integration support for the changing roles of teachers and empowerment of students for their own learning we might move further along.- jmorrison jmorrison Jun 10, 2015
Significant portions of K12 schooling will undergo improvements through gamification. Multiple devices connecting to multiple learning portals and systems will be more tightly integrated. The curriculum will be part consumed, part created, and very heavy with multimedia. Always on high definition, high quality A/V will be ubiquitous to the learning as student partners and experts collaborate and are facilitated by the school/teacher towards anytime, anywhere, anybody, anything access for learning. (- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015) Hands-on learning has been a trend and the incorporation of it will continue to be a long-term trend. There are many programs and different educational settings available for students to partake. Specifically, magnet programs or some other form are available in many schools across the country so that students may base their learning through specific interests. For example, many schools in Broward County, Florida offer magnet programs with a specific theme for that school. These themes continue from primary to secondary school. Students have the option to continue their entire K-12 career within the same academic field or they can be admitted to another magnet program if their interests change. - krantanen00 krantanen00 Jun 14, 2015 Contextualizing learning to make it more meaningful for the students. Instead of requiring students to learn abstract concepts, we will be contextualizing it with mobile learning and wearable technologies. - crompton crompton Jun 14, 2015


http://wallenberg.stanford.edu/conferences/gmu0609/files/21CLS.pdfhttps://youtu.be/meqbyg_TxT0

Added to RQ1: Important Developments in Educational Technology


Expansion of Wireless Capacity
Hillsboro School District.
http://www.hsd.k12.or.us/News/tabid/123/Article/304/district-expands-wireless-capacity-at-all-high-schools.aspx - jmorrison jmorrison Jun 3, 2015 [Editor's note: Great article! We'll add this to RQ topic: Wireless Power]

Learning Analytics is becoming embedded in many to most curricular based products. Products/solutions are including formative assessments, some adaptive in ability, and the ability to perform analytics on learning/achievement. Many are delivering dashboards to simplify moving towards data-driven decision making. (- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015) [Editor's Note: Added to existing RQ1 topic Learning Analytics]


Added to RQ4: Challenges


Standardization Backlash
Teachers and unions are protesting the Common Core. Parents are opting out of standardized testing. Classrooms are focused on "teaching to the test" at the expense of teaching the subjects that the tests should measure. Accountability is a political reality and unintended consequences abound. But now the pendulum is starting to swing the other way. The implication is that the technology infrastructure that was created to support on-line testing and everything that flows from it is ripe to be repurposed for scalable, authentic learning. The focus on interoperability and data collection for reasons of accountability has kicked off the implementation of data systems that can now be used to provide students with the feedback they need to assess and take ownership of their learning. Individual devices with integrated curriculum can also be used as 24/7 collaboration tools. Apple, Google, and (to a limited extent) Microsofts sales and provisioning educational app stores can put control of content and apps in the hands of individual teachers, parents, and students. The obsession with measurement can be used to focus on non-cognitive outcomes such as curiosity, perseverance, disposition, mind-set, agency, collaboration, creativity, etc. Most importantly, the improvements in the distribution infrastructure can continue to evolve explosively, making rapid iteration and experimentation possible for a given student, classroom, or content/app developer. At least to the extent that infrastructure is maturing and more evenly distributed. This creates a need for ever-increasing bandwidth, as student data use becomes driven by students and parents and teachers, with increasingly detailed information in more dimensions that SAT-preparation are collected in real-time by well-designed apps & content, as virtual and immersive environments become more authentic alternatives to deep learning than mere lecture & video, as exploration and creation beyond "teaching to the test" enters a renaissance in an environment where every teacher has the tools to measure and show efficacy in multiple dimensions to parents and students in real time, as on-line geographically distributed co-creation and participative learning become more prevalent, and as the playing field is leveled allowing countless of innovators to provide new apps, content, and unique subject matter to students any time, any place. - marieb marieb Jun 14, 2015 [Editor's Note: This reads more like a challenge has therefore been moved to RQ4 Challenges.]

Computational Thinking
....across all standards (e.g., common core), maths thru language arts. The standards will necessitate integrated content through project-based learning, with projects largely designed, developed, implemented and iterated using always on grid connectivity to anything. Bandwidth has to be very robust. (- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015) Computational Thinking as applied in STEM. Students will be developing more coding and data analytic skills. Real programming and "bigger" data. These skills in turn will drive interface with sensors and robotics as the Internet of Things and MakerBot become more common place. (- jbillings jbillings Jun 1, 2015)- jmorrison jmorrison Jun 16, 2015
[Editor's Note: This ties in to existing RQ4 Challenge "Teaching Complex Thinking."]